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# Choosing the right statistic

The Virtual Statistical Assistant

What statistical analysis should I use?  Statistical analyses using SPSS
http://www.ats.ucla.edu/stat/spss/whatstat/whatstat.htm

From  http://www.ats.ucla.edu/stat/mult_pkg/whatstat/default.htm

### What statistical analysis should I use?

The following table shows general guidelines for choosing a statistical analysis. We emphasize that these are general guidelines and should not be construed as hard and fast rules.  Usually your data could be analyzed in multiple ways, each of which could yield legitimate answers. The table below covers a number of common analyses and helps you choose among them based on the number of dependent variables (sometimes referred to as outcome variables), the nature of your independent variables (sometimes referred to as predictors).  You also want to consider the nature of your dependent variable, namely whether it is an interval variable, ordinal or categorical variable, and whether it is normally distributed (see What is the difference between categorical, ordinal and interval variables? for more information on this).  The table then shows one or more statistical tests commonly used given these types of variables (but not necessarily the only type of test that could be used) and links showing how to do such tests using SAS, Stata and SPSS.

 Number of Dependent Variables Nature of  Independent Variables Test(s) How to SPSS 1 0 IVs (1 population) interval & normal one-sample t-test SPSS ordinal or interval one-sample median SPSS categorical  (2 categories) binomial test SPSS categorical Chi-square goodness-of-fit SPSS 1 IV with 2 levels  (independent groups) interval & normal 2 independent sample t-test SPSS ordinal or interval Wilcoxon-Mann Whitney test SPSS categorical Chi- square test SPSS Fisher's exact test SPSS 1 IV with 2 or more levels (independent groups) interval & normal one-way ANOVA SPSS ordinal or interval Kruskal Wallis SPSS categorical Chi- square test SPSS 1 IV with 2 levels (dependent/matched groups) interval & normal paired t-test SPSS ordinal or interval Wilcoxon signed ranks test SPSS categorical McNemar SPSS 1 IV with 2 or more levels (dependent/matched groups) interval & normal one-way repeated measures ANOVA SPSS ordinal or interval Friedman test SPSS categorical repeated measures logistic regression SPSS 2 or more IVs (independent groups) interval & normal factorial ANOVA SPSS ordinal or interval ??? ??? categorical factorial  logistic regression SPSS 1 interval IV interval & normal correlation SPSS simple linear regression SPSS ordinal or interval non-parametric correlation SPSS categorical simple logistic regression SPSS 1 or more interval IVs and/or 1 or more categorical IVs interval & normal multiple regression SPSS analysis of covariance SPSS categorical multiple logistic regression SPSS discriminant analysis SPSS 2 or more 1 IV with 2 or more levels (independent groups) interval & normal one-way MANOVA SPSS 2 or more 2 or more interval & normal multivariate multiple linear regression SPSS 2 sets of  2 or more 0 interval & normal canonical correlation SPSS 2 or more 0 interval & normal factor analysis SPSS Number of Dependent Variables Nature of  Independent Variables Test(s) How to SPSS

From http://bama.ua.edu/~jleeper/627/choosestat.html

Choosing the Correct Statistical Test

 Number of Dependent* Variables Number of Independent** Variables Type of Dependent Variable(s) Type of Independent Variable(s) Measure Test(s) 1 0 (1 population) continuous normal not applicable  (none) mean one-sample t-test continuous non-normal median one-sample median categorical proportions Chi Square goodness-of-fit, binomial test 1 (2 independent populations) normal 2 categories mean 2 independent sample t-test non-normal medians Mann Whitney, Wilcoxon rank sum test categorical proportions Chi square test Fisher's Exact test 0 (1 population measured twice) or 1 (2 matched populations) normal not applicable/ categorical means paired t-test non-normal medians Wilcoxon signed ranks test categorical proportions McNemar, Chi-square test 1 (3 or more populations) normal categorical means one-way ANOVA non-normal medians Kruskal Wallis categorical proportions Chi square test 2 or more (e.g., 2-way ANOVA) normal categorical means Factorial ANOVA non-normal medians Friedman test categorical proportions log-linear, logistic regression 0 (1 population measured  3 or more times) normal not applicable means Repeated measures ANOVA 1 normal continuous correlation simple linear regression non-normal non-parametric correlation categorical categorical or continuous logistic regression continuous discriminant analysis 2 or more normal continuous multiple linear regression non-normal categorical logistic regression normal mixed categorical and continuous Analysis of Covariance General Linear Models (regression) non-normal categorical logistic regression 2 2 or more normal categorical MANOVA 2 or more 2 or more normal continuous multivariate multiple linear regression 2 sets of  2 or more 0 normal not applicable canonical correlation 2 or more 0 normal not applicable factor analysis
 * outcome ** predictor

 • Glossary • Topics • What stat? • Nonparametric • Links • SPSS •   Peace and survival of life on Earth as we know it are threatened by human activities that lack a commitment to humanitarian values.  Destruction of nature and natural resources results from ignorance, greed, and a lack of respect for the Earth's living things... .  It is not difficult to forgive destruction in the past, which resulted from ignorance.  Today, however, we have access to more information, and it is essential that we re-examine ethically what we have inherited, what we are responsible for, and what we will pass on to coming generations.  Clearly this is a pivotal generation... .  Our marvels of science and technology are matched if not outweighed by many current tragedies, including human starvation in some parts of the world, and extinction of other life forms... .  We have the capability and responsibility.  We must act before it is too late.  Tenzin Gyatso the fourteenth Dalai Lama. Quote of the Day