Yvan-Charvet L, Ng LG
Trends Immunol. 2019 Jul;40(7):598-612
Granulopoiesis is part of the hematopoietic hierarchic architecture, where hematopoietic stem cells give rise to highly proliferative multipotent and lineage-committed granulocytic progenitor cells that differentiate into unipotent neutrophil progenitors. Given their short lifespan, neutrophils are rapidly cleared from circulation through specialized efferocytic macrophages. Together with an intrinsic clock, these processes contribute to circadian fluctuations, preserving self-tolerance and protection against invading pathogens. However, metabolic perturbation of granulopoiesis and neutrophil homeostasis can result in low-grade chronic inflammation, as observed with aging. During acute pathogenic infections, hematopoiesis can also be switched into emergency mode, which has been recently associated with significant neutrophil functional heterogeneity. This review focuses on a new reassessment of regulatory mechanisms governing neutrophil production, life-cycle, and diversity in health and disease.