Simulation & Gaming: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Theory, Practice and Research
  | HomeGuide for Authors | About S&G | Resources | Search | Subscribe..\resources\docs\Hamermesh_A Young Economist's Guide to Professional Etiquette.pdf

  Same level =>
Lower level =>

Simulation and Gaming and the Teaching of Sociology
6th edition, 1997.
Compiled by Richard L. Dukes
Colorado University, Colorado Springs

Sections in this bibliography:
||  Contents page  ||  Books  ||  Articles   ||  Periodicals, directories, centers  ||  Findings   ||

Baker, A. C., P. J. Jensen, and D. L. Kolb. 1997.  In Conversation: Transforming Experience into Learning. Simulation & Gaming 28:6-12.
The authors argue that learning can be facilitated during debriefing by a game director who creates "hospitable, receptive spaces" in which to "hold and nurture conversation."

Bredemeier, M. E. 1978. Providing Referents for Sociological Concepts: Simulation Gaming. Teaching Sociology, 5:409-422.
Describes simulation games as a means of overcoming the bridge between sociological abstractness and direct experience. Games also facilitate a synthesis of cognitive and affective learning.

Bredemeier, M. E. and C. S. Greenblat. 1981. The Educational Effectiveness of Simulation Games: A Synthesis of Findings. Simulation & Games 12:307-332.
Reviews literature on simulation games. Shows that they can be effective teaching devices.

Broker, R. G. 1988. Truth as a Variable: Teaching Political Strategy with Simulation Games. Simulation & Games 19:43-58.
Examines the teaching of morality in simulation games. Instructors need to teach students that there is more to competition than strategy through discussions about moral reasoning and ethics, and lessons learned in one game may not apply to all games or real-life situations.

Bruin, K. 1985. Prejudices, Discrimination, and Simulation Gaming: An Analysis. Simulation & Games 16:161-173.
Bruin argues that games such as BAFA BAFA, CULTURE CONTACT and SUMAH fit neatly into the first step of a communication framework of attitude change which should make them effective in diminishing prejudice and discrimination.

Bruschke, J. C., C. Gartner and J. S. Seiter. 1993. Student Ethnocentrism, Dogmatism, and Motivation: A Study of BAFA BAFA. Simulation & Gaming 24:9-20.
In the classic simulation, BAFA BAFA, Alpha culture (modeled after classic Greek culture) and Beta culture (USA) meet, and typically they clash. Originally designed for the U. S. Navy, the object of the game is to decrease ethnocentrism. Results from almost 400 players showed that play increased ethnocentrism and dogmatism, but in addition, it increased motivation to learn more about other cultures. Authors suggest that lecture may be a better way to decrease ethnocentrism.

Butler, J. T. 1988). Games and Simulations: Creative Educational Alternatives. TechTrends 33:20-23.
Discusses effectiveness of games and simulations as learning tools. Presents evaluation criteria. Briefly discusses design of these exercises.

Byrnes, D. A. and G. Kiger. 1992. Prejudice-Reduction Simulations: Ethics, Evaluations, and Theory Into Practice. Simulation & Gaming 23:457-471.
Prejudice-reduction simulations typically contain risks to participants of coercion, lack of informed consent, and stress. The authors conclude that given adequate debriefing, greater compassion as an outcome for participants outweighs the risks. Focuses on the BLUE EYES--BROWN EYES, a moderately effective exercise for reducing prejudice (For description of the exercise, see Peters, W. 1987. A Class Divided: Then and Now. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.) An alternate point of view is taken by the article following Byrnes and Kiger in this issue of Simulation & Gaming.

Chin, J. 1989. Review of SOCIOLOGY LABORATORY by William Sims Bainbridge. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Simulation & Gaming 20:501-505 and Simulation & Gaming 21 (1990):96-98. See also, Teaching Sociology 16 (1988):93-94.
Reports on a set of 12 computer simulation exercises. "Status" and "Race" are about stratification. "Birth" and "Career" are about demographics. "Suicide" illustrates Durkheim's anomie via contingency tables. "Evolve" is about mutation and evolution. "Morals" (the reviewer's personal favorite) is about deviance and criminology. "Invent" is about communication. "Revolt" is about social influence. "Phobos," "Demos," and "Mars" are about cooperation and competition. Data are generated by the programs, so outcomes can be unrealistic. Chin points out that most courses can incorporate only a small number of the exercises.

Coleman, J. S. 1989. "Simulation Games and the Development of Social Theory. Simulation & Games 20:144-164.
Discusses the link between simulation games and social theory. Gathers strands of Coleman's earlier work on community conflict, self-esteem in high school, and exchange theory.

Coleman, J. S., et al. 1973. The Hopkins' Games Program: Conclusions from Seven Years of Research. Educational Researcher 2:3-7.
Contains a concise summary of findings from over 150 research projects conducted at Johns Hopkins: the definitive work. This body of research established that simulation games are an effective method of teaching students, and students generally prefer simulations and games to other teaching methods. Simulation games can teach factual information, but not more effectively than other techniques, and they can change students' attitudes. Lower ability students are as good as students of higher ability at learning to play winning strategies, but often they cannot grasp the connection between the game and the real life situation that it represents.

D'Antonio, W. V. 1983. Nibbling at the Core. Teaching Sociology 10:169-185.
Sociologist D'Antonio argues briefly but forcefully that games and simulation such as SURVIVAL, STARPOWER, and SIMSOC belong in the introductory sociology curriculum along with short papers, essay exams, and term papers.

Davis, J. A., R. Dukes and W. A. Gamson. 1981. Assessing Interactive Modes of Sociology Instruction. Teaching Sociology 8:313-323.
Discusses goals for learning with various interactive teaching strategies (including gamed simulation) and how learning can be assessed.

Debenham, J. and G. Smith. 1979. MATESIM: Simulating Decision-Making in Marriage Formation. Teaching Sociology 6:147-160.
Describes a computer simulation that allows students to simulate marriage to alternative individuals using 54 categories. The student provides input on self and partner. Output describes strengths and weaknesses of the proposed marriage.

DeMartini, J. 1983. Sociology, Applied Work and Experiential Learning. Teaching Sociology 11:17-31.
Contrasts goals of classroom learning (arena of ideas) with those of experiential learning (arena of action). Provides sound reasons for using simulations as a bridge between these two types of learning.

Dorn, D. S. 1989. Simulation Games: One More Tool On the Pedagogical Shelf. Teaching Sociology 17:1-18.
Sociologist Dorn provides a comprehensive review of the field. Assumes no prior knowledge of gaming. Is of interest to readers at all levels of experience. Presents history of the field, basic definitions, and rationale for use of simulation games in education. Comments on effectiveness, problems, and use of games in the classroom. Reviews briefly 13 prominent games. Cites over 150 sources. Highly recommended.

Dukes, R. L. 1987. Teaching Statistics with Nonsimulation Games. Teaching Sociology 15:184-190.
Develops rationale for using games in the classroom and presents two games for teaching statistics.

Elder, C. D. 1973. Problems in the Structure and Use of Educational Simulation. Sociology of Education 46:335-354.
This classic article examines problems and pitfalls in the structure and use of educational simulations within the context of the total educational experience. He suggests the need for simulations aimed at different levels of student competence.

Gamson, W. A. and R. J. Stambaugh. 1978. The Model Underlying SIMSOC. Simulation & Games 9:131-158.
Discusses game design and modification of SIMSOC. The underlying model is described in terms of the central processes and possible outcomes of the three phases of the simulation. The use of the model in making revisions for the 3rd edition (1978) is also discussed. This article updates a previous discussion of the model in Simulation & Games 2 (1971): 287-308.

Glass, John F. 1978. Prisoner's Dilemma: An Exercise in Intergroup Relations. Teaching Sociology 5:275-280.
Describes the use of Prisoner's Dilemma as a teaching simulation for learning about conflict resolution, decision making, trust, and the effects of competitive and collaborative behavior.

Greenblat, C. S. 1971. Simulations, Games, and the Sociologist. American Sociologist 6:161-164.
This early piece introduces sociologists to the whats, whys, and hows of using simulations and games in the teaching of sociology.

Greenblat, C. S. and J. H. Gagnon. 1979. Further Explorations on the Multiple Reality Game. Simulation & Games 10:41-59.
While most simulation games assume a single view of the real world, many games present multiple realities, a situation close to the sociological view of the real world. The authors explore issues raised by multiple reality games.

Groves, J. M., C. Warren, and J. Witschger. 1996. Reversal of Fortune: A Simulation Game for Teaching

Inequality in the Classroom. Teaching Sociology 24: 364-371.

Describes a promising, unnamed exercise that simulates how resources influence social

neworks. Contains rules, debriefing questions, and a post game questionnaire. Presents results

from 142 participants. Suitable for introductory sociology, social problems, race, gender, or other

course on stratification.

Harrod, W. 1983. Social Dilemma: A Teaching Game. Teaching Sociology 10:266-274.

Discusses a classroom exercise which is simpler than THE COMMONS GAME (Powers, Duus and

Norton, 1980) but which shares some of its characteristics.

Hazelton, W. A. and R. P. Maharin. 1986. External Simulations as Teaching Devices: The Model United

Nations. Simulation & Games 17:149-171.

This article examines the benefits of using the Model United Nations as a learning laboratory. Results

were based on faculty and student questionnaires. The authors found that the educational value of the exercise

was enhanced by extensive preparation.

Hope, C. A. and R. G. Stover. 1982. The Commons Game: An Exercise in Resource Allocation. Teaching

Sociology 9 :383-399.

Describes the transformation of a short-term laboratory simulation (based on Edney's exercise on Free

Riders) into a long-term classroom exercise which focuses on how structural features shape decisions.

Hunt, K. C. 1990. Review of the HEX GAME: A Game on Human Settlement Management by Richard D.

Duke and Associates. Ann Arbor, MI: Multilogue (321 Parklake Ave, 48103). Simulation & Gaming


The game models development in a third world country on local, regional, and national levels. It

focuses on interdependence between the whole and its parts. The game is complex, and it takes several hours to

play. It is an excellent exercise.

Kraus, S., J. Wilkenfeld, M. A. Harris, and E. Blake. 1992. The HOSTAGE CRISIS SIMULATION.

Simulation & Gaming 23:398-416.

Describes the HOSTAGE CRISIS SIMULATION, a three-person exercise modeled after the hijacking of

a plane bound for Israel from Europe that was forced to land in Egypt. The exercise incorporates a computer

program (POLNET) that guides negotiations. Thirty-two experimental runs of the simulation showed that

POLNET increased the success of the negotiations.

Lederman, L. C. 1984. Debriefing: A Critical Reexamination of the Postexperience Analytic Process with

Implications for its Effective Use. Simulation & Games 15:415-431.

Focuses on the communication aspects of debriefing. She argues that teachers should

cultivate five skills essential to effective debriefing: 1) tolerance for ambiguity, 2) ability to observe

and interpret behavior, 3) ability to form questions and listen to answers, 4) ability to select

appropriate directiveness, 5) a sense of timing and sound judgement.

Lundgren, T. D. and R. M. Loar. 1978. CLUG: The Spirit of Capitalism and the Success of a

Simulation. Simulation & Games 9:201-207.

The authors describe their use of Alan Feldt's CLUG (Community Land Use Game) over a six-

year period. They have managed to heighten the experience by fostering the spirit of capitalism

among the participants.

Makedon, A. 1984. Playful Gaming. Simulation & Games 15: 25-64.

Describes how gaming can be used as a vehicle for examination of sociological concepts such

as social change, socialization, utopia, education. Well argued rationale for use of games in

educational settings.

Meyers, D. 1990. A Q-Study of Game Player Aesthetics. Simulation & Gaming 21:375-396.

Forty-four students used the Q-sort technique to describe their favorite games. Criteria of fantasy,

curiosity, challenge, and interactivity were useful in describing computer games. Argues that the criteria are

useful for designing games and for choosing them for teaching.

Neubeck, K. J. 1977. Economic Inequality and Cultural Values: An In-Class Game. Teaching Sociology


Describes a game in which students choose and defend a system of income distribution, and in the

process they articulate their own values concerning inequality. Shows how the rules of the game influence the

values which emerge. Describes use in a variety of courses.

Nikkel, S. R. 1976. A Review of Urban Instructional Simulations. Simulation & Games 7:97-106.

Classifies and compares six urban simulation games. SIMSOC and STARPOWER focus on inequality,

CLUG and New Town emphasize land use, and Metropolis and Sitte focus on metropolitan politics. Discusses

the importance of these underlying features in matching games to course content.

Osmond, M. W. 1979. The Use of Simulation Games in Teaching Family Sociology. The Family

Coordinator 28:205-216. See also Journal of Marriage and the Family 40:49-61.

Describes a game that illustrates Blau's model of social exchange. Players learn how roles and resources

influence degree of fair exchange between partners. Discusses how variations of the game can be used to teach

the dynamics of conflict and exchange in counselor-client relationships.

Pahl, R. H. 1992. Finally, a Good Way to Teach City Government!: A Review of the Computer Simulation

Game 'SimCity.' Social Studies 82:165-166. See also, White, J. D. 1992. Review of SIMCITY: The

City Simulator. Simulation & Gaming 23:120-123.

Review of widely distributed computer simulation game about the development of a city. SIMCITY

received national television coverage as a teaching tool that has been used with inner-city students in Los

Angeles since the 1992 riot.

Petranek, C. 1994. A Maturation in Experiential Learning: Principles of Simulation & Gaming. Simulation

& Gaming 25:513-523.

An explanation of how to use games and simulations in sociology classes by a master teacher.

Petranek, C., S. Corey and R. Black. 1992. Three Levels of Learning in Simulations: Participating,

Debriefing, and Journal Writing. Simulation & Gaming 23:174-185.

Argues convincingly for journal writing as part of simulation and gaming in learning.

Randel, J. M., B. A. Morris, C. D. Wetzel, and B. V. Whitehill. 1992. The Effectiveness of Games for

Educational Purposes: A Review of Recent Research. Simulation & Gaming 23:261-276.

Excellent review of literature on the effectiveness of games versus traditional classroom instruction for

learning. Considered 68 studies from 1963-1991 in social science, math, language arts, logic, physics, and

biology. Findings of effectiveness were strongest for language arts and math. In these fields greater specificity

of content and more effective use of computers created a clear advantage for the exercises over traditional

teaching methods. Twelve of 14 studies favored the games. In social science 33 of 46 studies showed no

difference. That is, games were at least as effective as more traditional methods. In 13 of 46 studies, games

were shown to be better. Furthermore, greater retention was shown for games, and students reported greater

interest in simulation and game activities than in more conventional classroom instruction. See also Van Sickle,

R. L. 1986. A Quantitative Review of Research on Instructional Simulation Gaming: A Twenty-year

Perspective. Theory and Research in Social Education 14:245-264.

Sanders, P. and J. N. Yanouzas. 1985. Experiential Socialization: Some Effects of Positive Personal

Reinforcement upon Socializing 'Rebellious' Learners. Simulation & Games 16:71-85.

Results of this research show that positive feedback from the instructor increases the degree of

participant acceptance of norms associated with experiential learning.

Schindler, J. V. 1993. Review of SIMLIFE: The Genetic Playground. Simulation & Gaming 24:252-256.

See also, Thiagarajan, R. 1991. Review of SIMEARTH: The Living Planet. Simulation & Gaming


SIMEARTH, SIMCITY, SIMLIFE, and SIMANT (yes, an ant colony) are a series of successful

computer simulations. The first two are appropriate for sociology. As Schindler says, "I never thought playing

God could be so much fun--or so challenging!" Players set parameters and put the simulations in motion.

These exercises are widely available at software stores. They are distributed by Maxis, Two Theater Square,

Suite 230, Orinda CA 94563-3041.

Seidner, C. J. 1976. Teaching with Simulations and Games, pp. 217-251 in N. L. Gage (ed.), The

Psychology of Teaching Methods. Chicago: National Society for the Study of Education.

A comprehensive review of the literature on simulations and games as instructional techniques. Provides

an excellent overview of findings on effectiveness versus unsubstantiated claims. Discusses variations in

outcomes by demographic and other background characteristics of participants.

Slesnick, T. 1983. Creative Play: An Alternative Use of the Computer in Education. Simulation & Games


An introduction to eight simple computer-related activities. Although these materials were developed for

seven- to twelve-year-olds, the exercises are basic to computer-aided instruction for students of any age.

Splevin, G. 1979. Directed Discovery in Debriefing. SIMAGES (Fall):17-21.

Presents debriefing of a simulation game as composed of two parts--clearing the air and clarifying

principles. Provides a guideline for maintaining the focus of affective debriefing and a systematic procedure for

focusing the learner's attention on a specific principle. This principle can be combined with others to develop

higher order generalizations.

Splevin, G. 1979. Handling Emotions During Debriefing. SIMAGES (Spring):11-13.

This article provides a guideline for undertaking the affective component of debriefing. Contains a

checklist of debriefing issues.

Steinwachs, B. 1992. How to Facilitate a Debriefing. Simulation & Gaming 23:186-195.

Systematic explanation of the debriefing process. Includes preparation for debriefing, dealing with large

groups, description of what happened, and application of what was learned to real life. This issue of Simulation

& Gaming is devoted entirely to debriefing, and the issue is available separately.

Stolovitch, H. D. 1990. D-FITGA: A Debriefing Model. Performance and Instruction 29:18-19.

Presents a model of debriefing that is made up of the following elements: decompression, factual

information, inferences, transfer from the exercise to the real world, generalizations, applications.

Szafran, R. F. and A. F. Mandolina. 1980. Student Evaluations of a Simulation Game: Patterns in a Large

Introductory Sociology Course. Teaching Sociology 8:21-37.

Reports on student evaluations of SIMSOC.

Tamminga, H. L. 1977. Moral Education Through Gaming-Simulation in Sociology. Teaching Sociology


Emphasizes the implicit link between simulation games and values education. Argues that values are

always taught when gaming.

Thatcher, D. C. 1990. Promoting Learning Through Games and Simulations. Simulation & Gaming 21:262-


Applies David Kolb's Experiential Learning Model to the use of games in the classroom. Presents

debriefing as the keynote to teaching with games and simulations.

Theobold, D. M, , S. H. Huntsman, and J. R. Supra, Jr. 1995. WORLD SYSTEM SIMULATION: A

Generational Perspective on Global Systems. Simulation & Gaming 26: 249-260.


Presents computer simulation exercise the object of which is to sustain the word system.

The exercise models the interrelation of economy, agriculture, population, resources, and pollution.

Thorson, E., ed., 1979. Simulation in Higher Education: Papers from Denison Simulation Center at

Denison University, Granville, Ohio. Hicksville, NY: Exposition Press.

This book is a report on a large, three-year Simulation and Learning Project at Denison.

Wentworth, D. R. and D. R. Lewis. 1973. A Review of Research on Instructional Games and

Simulations in Social Science Education. Social Education 37:432-440.

An early, general review of the field.