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Example ms

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This section shows you what a ms should look like.
Note that this varies, depending on what type of version you are sending draft or final.

Check listTo make sure that you have attended to all aspects of your ms, use the Check list, for v1 and for the final version (and place inside the email).

Draft ms

While your ms is under review, you will send a draft ms.  Certain items (e.g., author names) do not appear in draft versions.  In the example ms below, the items in green must NOT be included in a draft version.

E-mail Draft versions of your article must be exactly like the form shown below, but without authors' names and affiliations at the top, without personal acknowledgements, and without bio-statement and contact details at the end.  Sent by e-mail.  Include ms ID at the top.

Include the ms ID in both the subject line, the body of the e-mail, and the top of the ms.  For details, see e-mail submission of ms.  Make sure that you send the Cover Sheet in the body of the e-mail to which your ms is attached - for v1 only.

For v2 and v3, include your responses to reviewers at the start of the ms, immediately after the ms ID.  Always send word files in .doc format (not .docx).  Always send graphics files with filenames similar to the ms file.  Never compress or zip files.

Final ms

Once your ms has been accepted for publication, you prepare the final version.  This section shows how a final article ms should look.   All items (e.g., author names, bio-statements, cover sheet) appear in the final versions.  Follow the filename formatting for sending your ms by e-mail.

Always send word files in .doc format (not .docx).  Always send graphics files with filenames similar to the ms file.  Never compress or zip files.

Example of a final ms
is how your final ms will look (green items are not included in a draft ms).  Note that all items must be included in a single MS Word file.  Use .doc (not .docx).  Do not zip or compress any files.  Low-res graphics in the word file; hi-res graphics sent as separate files, with the same file,ame as the ms.


Ms ID (bold)

Reviewer comments + responses to reviewers

Include reviews and responses in all versions from v2 on, including final.  The final version of a ms, written to be published, must include reviewer comments on the previous version, along with your author respones.


+++++++++++ [this is not a page break, just a line made with plus signs]


cover sheet goes here

  • for the final ms, the cover goes inside the same file as the ms

  • for a draft ms, the cover goes inside the body of the email of v1 of your ms (not v2, nor v3)


+++++++++++ [this is not a page break, just a line made with plus signs] ++++++++++




Language use perceptions in simulation: Some survey findings


The title of the article should be chosen with consideration for accuracy, appropriateness, succinctness and flair.  Shorter titles are best.  Sub-titles should be used where appropriate.  Main words (important concepts) should, if possible, be in and at the start start of main title;  other concepts (words) in the sub-title.  A maximum of 10 words is suggested, with 12 words being an absolute limit.  For longer titles, be in touch with the editor when submitting the abstract for a ms ID, and provide a justification of excessive length.

Lea R. Ning
Xper I. Ence
University of Learning, Playland

Sitting Duck
Pond University, Simland



Object.  Do a structured abstract** for your article.

Objectives.  The main objective of a structured abstract, compared with a classic abstract, is to make it easier for potential readers to grasp the main thrust of your article.  This allows them to decide immediately on the article's relevance to their interests It summarizes the main points and their interrelations.  It also indicates the main findings and conclusions.

ClarityYour abstract must be the epitome of clarity; it is written in tight but clear language.  Clarity and succinctness are more important than style and flow (prose) here.

Style Short, active sentences achieve these objectives.  Split infinitives are to be avoided, as are 'there is/are' forms.  Your abstract should be both informative and suitable for abstracting services.

Format.  Main terms in your abstract are in bold; both necessary and sufficient.  Your abstract should be less than 200 words; longer only if really necessary**.  An ordinary abstract (e.g., for autobiograhical articles, or for short guest editorials) should be less than 150 words**.  Do not right justify text in the abstract and in the article.

Web page.  It is essential to consult the structured abstract page in this author guide.  Also consult APA for more help.

KEYWORDS: control; human-computer interaction; interaction; ISAGA’94; participation patterns; participant perceptions; research perspectives; SIMSOC; simulation/gaming; United Nations. ***



* You must do a structured abstract, and if at all possible also include a graphical abstract.  Headings are in italic; key terms (or phrases) are in bold.

** Consult with the editor if you are unsure.

*** For keywords, use alpha order; semi-colon separation; lower case, as above, unless otherwise required.  Include as many keywords as reasonably necessary.  If in doubt, add more rather than fewer, e.g., an article with the keyword pollution might also warrant the keywords environment, environmental protection, etc.

    This is where your main text starts.  The first section of the main text should be fairly short, with NO heading (the article title serves as the heading).  The objective of these first paragraphs is to introduce the reader to the main concepts, ideas, organization, objectives, rationale, problems and so on of the article.

    Although these first few paragraphs do not constitute an abstract, most of the information in the abstract may be re-stated here, but in a less stylistically-tight and propositionally-condensed form, and probably providing more detail and some background about some of the most important issues and topics addressed.

    This section is thus much more of an invitation to read than is the abstract; it should engage the reader's curiosity at the outset, encouraging her or him to read on.  This section also clearly states the main objectives of the article and at least summarizes the main conclusions/findings.  These few, probably short, paragraphs say to the reader: "Hey, you should read this article because ...".

The nitty gritty [first level 1 heading]

    It is after your first main heading that the nitty gritty of your discussion starts.  Headings should be kept as short as possible, giving them more impact.  Use lower case whenever possible.  Use many headings; avoid long stretches of text without headings.

    From here on, use a maximum of three levels of heads (main headings, sub-headings and minor headings) as described in the mechanics section of this Guide.  However, avoid only one sub-heading within a main-heading section; and also a single minor heading under a given sub-heading [1].

    Use square brackets for endnotes [2].  This is where the main text of your article ends.  It is followed by notes [3], references, and so on.

End notes

  1. For more details on the three-level system of headings, see elsewhere in this document.
  2. Make sure all notes correspond to their correct numbers in the text.
  3. Make sure that a note is really necessary, and that it cannot be placed in the text.



Acknowledgments or similar notes should be made here, for example, to named colleagues and/or known (coaching) or anonymous reviewers.  Also, if authors have been particularly pleased with the help they have received from their reviewers or naive readers, they may wish to mention this here.  If you know the name, affiliation and country, mention these. (This is not an endnote; it is part of the text.)

Declaration of Conflicting Interests

Indicate here any conflicting interest that may arise between you and the matter discussed in the article.  If none, then say: "The author(s)* declared no conflicts of interest with respect to the authorship and/or publication of this article."


Indicate details about any funding that you may have received in connection with the article, direct or indirect.  If none, then say:  "The author(s)* received no financial support for the research and/or authorship of this article."

* For above two paras, for one author say "author", for several say "authors".  The publisher will not correct this, and I may miss it.

Author contributions (examples of statements)*

All authors contributed to this article, in content and in form.  KSC wrote the manuscript.  LAL did the statistical analysis. CLR, KJP and GWM performed the modelling.  MTW, LAR and KJP prepared the experiments.  KSC, LAL and CLR did the data interpretation.  AR and PMF did the calculations.  All authors contributed equally to the editing of the manuscript.


All authors contributed to this article, both substantively and formally.  Conceived and designed the experiments: AB CD.  Performed the experiments: AB EF.  Wrote the final ms: EF GH.  Wrote the first draft: EF.  Did the bulk of the literature search: CD EF KL.  Made numerous critiques and suggested specific wording: GH IJ KL.  Designed most of the graphics: KL MN. Did most of the statistical analyses: MN PQ.


* S&G does not accept free rider authors.  If you are two authors or more, include this section.  Indicate the types of work involved in the research behind the article and in writing and revising the ms.  If the number of authors exceeds 5, then all six or more of the authors will need to send, each independently, to the editor, an email providing a clear statement contain verifiable assurance that every author listed has done their fair share of the work.  Provide plenty of detail about the main tasks involved.  Use formatting as in above.  It is wise to differentiate as much as possible.

A declaration like "All authors contributed equally" is sometimes considered as somewhat suspect.  If it is really true, then include a phrase of that nature.  However, it is always a good idea anyway to itemize all the elements that went into the making of your article, as it gives readers an idea of the often massive amount of work that authors often undertake.  If you are a professor and your research student has done most of the work, it is normal to put your students' name first.

A general statement like "All authors contributed substantially to this article." makes little sense on its own because one assumes that authors contribute to the substance of the article.  If you must make a general statement, then something like "All authors contributed equally to both the content and form of this article.".  However, this then means that order of authors muct be alphabetical by last name, and that this is mentioned.  So final wording would be something like "Authors are listed in alphabetical order, and all contributed equally to both the content and form of this article".  If this is not the case, then an indication of tasks accomplished is in order (see examples above).

"The free rider problem refers to a situation where some individuals in a population either consume more than their fair share of a common resource, or pay less than their fair share of the cost of a common resource" Investopedia.  "A free rider ... refers to someone who benefits from resources, goods, or services without paying for the cost of the benefit. ...  Free riding may be considered as a free rider problem when it leads to under-provision of goods or services, or when it leads to overuse or degradation of a common property resource. ... Some individuals in a team or community may reduce their contributions or performance if they believe that one or more other members of the group may free ride."  Wikipedia.



Reference, A. (1989).  This is a reference to the document you are holding.  In D. Crookall (Ed.).  Guide for authors (pp. 000-000).  Warri, Nigeria: S&G Editorial Office.

Reference, T.  (1990).  References should flow on after text and notes: See elsewhere in this Guide for exact format.  Mimeo.

Uncited references

Put references here that you have not cited in the body of your text, but which you think may be useful to readers.



Lea R. Ning has been hooked on games for many a year.  At this point write a short bio-statement, which might include any of the following (or other) items: degrees, recent publications and simulation/games designed, current research, training, personal interests, activities, association responsibilities, noteworthy accomplishments, a favorite short quote. Contact:;

Sim Ulation likes paddling games and has written the world's all-time best-seller on the subject, called New Games for Old Paddlers.  Bio-statements should be no longer than 60 words, per author.  Start a new paragraph for each author.  Do not use titles, but mention (if you must) key degrees. Contact:;


Indicate email address.  Web sites are optional.  Only mention URLs if they are reasonably short.

Start the bio statement with FirstName and Name, not Dr, Prof or other title.  If you must include such, then use this format:
Sim Ulation (PhD, U of Play, Gameland), is associate professor at the University of Play.  He has played many games ...

The total maximum length for each bio is 60 words, as measured in the Word properties-statistics tab.

Follow the above address pattern exactly. Do not abbreviate street, road, etc.   Always include the country. Telephone and fax numbers: in the above format and wording (include country code as +NN).  Use format of originating country; for USA, use +1 123-456-7890 format. 



APPENDIX 1: With a Short Title

This starts on a new page. Organize and write appendices so that, stylistically and presentation-wise, they fit well with the rest of the article.  Appendices are referred to by number in the main text and carry a short title.  If there is only one appendix, omit the number.


That is the end of the example of a final manuscript.  For more details on each of the above elements, consult the ms mechanics section, and the email section.