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This section tells you how to do your references, both the citations in the body of your text and the reference list at the end of your article.   Incomplete or badly done referencing results in delayed publication.

If you use your own, previously published material (text, diagrams, etc.), e.g., in a conference proceedings (CD, book, etc.), you must treat it as if it was written by someone else, i.e., you must provide full reference for the source.  In other words, you must cite your own published work in the same way as you cite other people's published work.  For any work cited, others' or your own, you may need to obtain permission to reproduce in S&G.

It is important to provide a complete set of references.  It is better to have many rather than few.  Make full reference to the literature, especially articles published in S&G.  This will make your article more solid, helps to promote the profession, reflects well on you, the author, and it gets the journal better known.

If you have trouble searching the literature and finding references, ask your library to take out an electronic subscription.  The publisher has now completed the digitalization of all back issues of S&G.  A subscription should allow you to have access to the complete set of S&G issues, starting with the very first issue, Vol. 1, No. 1.

Be sure to include relevant references to the literature, particularly articles published in S&G.  Reviewers often 'complain' that authors have not referred to the relevant S&G literature.  Better to do this at the outset, rather to have to change rework a later version of the article.

Examples of references are given here in courier font (in your ms use times roman).

Text citations (in the body of your article)

Citations in the main body of the article should follow APA style exactly.  Do not use "ibid", "op cit", etc. Remember that "cf" means "compare", not "see".

Additional rules regulating the citing of simulation/games and software packages apply.  Simulation/game titles follow the usual convention in the simulation/gaming literature, that is, capitals without inverted commas or quote marks, e.g.,

... In the game BAFA BAFA, two cultures come into contact ...
... In the well-known INTERNATIONAL MARBLES HEX GAME, players ...

Authorship and date of simulation/games are not given in the text -- only the title of the simulation.  The citation should then be referenced under the name of the simulation/game within the reference list (see below).   All simulation/games cited in the text must be referenced in the reference list (see below).

Reference list

References to simulation/games, software packages, books and articles should be listed together, fully, alphabetically, and under the centered heading "References".  Make sure that citations in the text correspond exactly to those in the reference list.  Do not abbreviate names of journals.  Be sure to include page numbers (chapters and journal articles).

For article (including final) versions, references must be double-spaced and start on a new page.  Indent second and subsequent lines of a reference.

The reference list follows APA closely.  Two exceptions to this are serial commas and simulation/game packages.

  • Do not use the serial comma in titles that do not use it in the original. Most forms of English round the world do not use the serial comma if it is not needed for meaning.  Thus you will encounter many instances of the ordinary and more straight-forward, non-use of a serial comma.  This should be reproduced in the reference.  However, use the serial comma in any title that already contains a serial comma.
  • Follow carefully the referencing style for simulation/games and software packages (as illustrated below).  These follow the convention used below, that is, normal APA, except that the simulation/game name comes before the author (as the author is not given in the main body of the text).
  • Also a full address is required for publishers/producers of all listed simulation/games and software packages.   Provide this address after the publisher, in parentheses, as indicated.

Examples of reference list entries

Journal Article
Smith, J. R. & Jones, R. J. (1989). Reference style guidelines. Journal of Guidelines, 4(1), 2-7

Smith, J. R. & Jones, R. J. (1989). Reference style guidelines. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Chapter in a book
Smith, J. R. & Jones, R. J. (1989). Reference style guidelines. In Brown, B. & Black, B. (Eds.) Guidelines for authors (pp. 55-62). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Edited book
Smith, J. R. & Jones, R. J. (Eds.) (1989). Reference sytle guidelines. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Dissertation or thesis (unpublished)
Smith, J. R. & Jones, R. J. (1989). Reference style guidelines. Unpublished doctoral (master's) dissertation (thesis), University of Sage.

Paper presented at symposium or annual meeting
Smith, J. R. & Jones, R. J. (1989, March). Reference style guidelines. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the World Federation of Reference Guidelines Associations, Newbury Park, CA. [Note: Avoid referring to unpublished conference presentations unless absolutely necessary and unless you have a copy of the handout.]

Stand-alone or self-contained simulation/game (i.e., not part of a larger publication)
NAME OF GAME, The.  Smith, J. R. & Jones, R. J. (1989). Newbury Park, CA: Sage (2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320, USA).

Simulation/game in another publication
TITLE OF GAME, The. Smith, J. R. & Jones, R. J. (1989). In Brown, B. & Black, B. (Eds.) Guidelines for authors (pp. 55-62). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Example of a correct reference list

BANBIC.  Coote, A., Saunders, D., & Crookall, D. (1985).  See Coote, A., Saunders, D., & Crookall, D.  1986.   Bargaining and negotiation within a business investment context: The BANBIC Game.   In Craig, S. & Martin, A. (Eds.) Simulation and games for capability.   Loughborough: SAGSET (Centre for Extension Studies, University of Technology, Loughborough, Leics LG27 1DC, UK).

Gardner, R. C.  (1979).  Social psychological aspects of second language acquisition.  In Giles, H. & St. Clair, R. (Eds.)  Language and social psychology.  Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Greenblat, C. S.  (1987).  Designing games and simulations: An illustrated handbook.  Newbury Park: Sage Publications.

GUNS OR BUTTER.  Nesbitt, W. A.  (1972).   Del Mar, CA: Simile II (PO Box 910, Del Mar, CA 92014, USA).

INTERWORD.  Computer Concepts.  (1986).   Hemel Hempstead: Computer Concepts (Gaddesden Place, Hemel Hempstead, Herts HP2 6EX, UK).

Lakin, M. & Costanzo, P. R.  (1975).   The leader and the experiential group. In Cooper, G. (Ed.)  Theories of group processes.  London: Wiley.

SIMSOC. (3rd Edition.) Gamson, W. A.  (1978).   New York & London: The Free Press (c/o Macmillan, 866 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10022, USA).

Teach, R. D.  (1990).  Profits: The false prophet in business gaming. Simulation & Gaming: An International Journal, 21,(1) 12-26

References to S&G should be made as follows

  Title to use in your reference list Full subtitle
  Simulation & Games: An International Journal  
From Vol. 21 No. 1 (March, 1990) Simulation & Gaming: An International Journal  
From Vol. 3? No. 1 (March, 19??) Simulation & Gaming: An Interdisciplinary Journal  

Use the official "&" ampersand in the main title (and is used in the sub-title).

Please re-check works cited in text against your references before you send the manuscript.  Queries caused by missing or incomplete references, or discrepancies between in-text citations and reference lists, can delay typesetting and thus cause your article to be held over to a later issue -- often a much later issue.


For other details concerning the mechanics of your manuscript, consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA), 4thd Edition.  You may also contact the APA by email:   The manual is available in all good libraries and from all good book shops.   Other APA style sites are to be found on the Internet, for example:

You can also order the manual directly, as follows:
APA,  Box 92984, Washington,  DC 20090-2984,  USA.
In Africa, Europe, or the Middle East:  APA,  3 Henrietta Street,  Covent Garden,  London WC2E 8LU,  England.

Good writing

Make sure that you follow the advice given in the section on good writing.